Trajan’s Column – Imperial & Religious Propaganda

Trajan’s Column – Imperial & Religious Propaganda

 

fig 1

                                                                                                          Figure I: Trajan’s Column [1]

 

Introduction

     According to the Oxford English Dictionary, propaganda may be defined as: ‘Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view.[2]  Propaganda is, in one form or another, as old as civilization itself.[3] It would not be too difficult to make the case that the towering ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia were forms of architectural propaganda, or that the giant pyramids and sphinx of Egypt were also artistic forms of propaganda. It would likewise be relatively easy to argue that the Colossus of Rhodes and other grandiose works of ancient art served as artistic mediums for religious and political propaganda. George Orwell once argued: ‘All art is to some extent propaganda’.[4]  Whether or not Orwell’s generalization holds true with respect to every single piece of art ever created, it certainly appears to true of Trajan’s Column.

Trajan’s Column was erected in Rome to commemorate Emperor Trajan’s victory over the Dacians in 106 CE [See Figure 1].[5] At the beginning of the second century the Dacians were one of the Roman Empire’s most formidable enemies.[6]  The column was dedicated in 113 CE.[7] The Column narrates the two main wars Trajan fought against the Dacians.[8]  It was made from valuable Luna marble quarried from the Carrara quarries and measures around 100 feet high [See Figure II].  The entire column is ornamented with a 700-foot spiralling frieze.  The narrative bands on the frieze present a vibrant account of Trajan’s victory, his offerings of sacrifices to the gods of Rome, Roman commerce, and numerous other scenes that were crafted to convey a bustling and somewhat chaotic narrative, the main star of which is the calm and collected Trajan [See Figure III].

fig 2

                                                                                                   Figure II: Trajan’s Column [9]

fig 3

                                                                                               Figure III: Emperor Trajan [10]

 

Prior to the Second World War both the word and the concept propaganda lacked the negative connotations with which it is now associated.[11]  The seventeenth-century etymology of the word propaganda originates from the name of a Catholic committee of cardinals (Congregatio de Propaganda Fide),[12] whose task it was to supervise foreign missionaries who were charged with the responsibility of propagating the religious ideology of Pope Gregory XV.[13]  It serves as a fortuitous irony then, that Trajan’s Column, atop of which originally stood a looing statue of Trajan, became a piece of propaganda for the Catholic Church, who, under auspices of Pope Sixtus V, crowned it with a bronze statue of Saint Peter [See Figure IV].[14]

fig 4

Figure IV: St. Peter atop Trajan’s Column [15]

This essay will examine the extent to which it may be argued that Trajan’s Column was an artistic expression designed for propaganda purposes. How did the structure of the column work as propaganda? Was there anything misleading in the pictorial narrative that may have been designed as propaganda? How did the column use religious iconography as propaganda? In what way did the function of the column constitute propaganda? This essay will attempt to answer the questions above and address the extent and ways in which Trajan’s Column may be argued to have constituted imperial propaganda.

 

The Propaganda of the Structure of the Column

Perhaps the most striking structural quality of Trajan’s Column is its phallic appearance [See Figure V]. It looks like a giant, 100-foot-high phallus in Trajan’s Forum, in the centre of Rome.  The sub-conscious reception of Trajan’s Column may be argued to be ‘Trajan’s Phallus’.  The association between a degrading military defeat and rape in the mind of the Roman was a close one. On this point, Richlin remarks:

‘To be penetrated, for a Roman, was degrading both in a physical sense of invasion, rupture, and contamination, and in a class sense: the penetrated person’s body was likened to the body of a slave. This experience of the individual is understood also on the state level, as war is associated with rape, both literally in the rape of the women and boys of the defeated enemy (Richlin 1992a: 98; cf. 1993: 553)…’[16]

fig 5

Figure V: Trajan’s Phallic Column [17]

 

Thus, Trajan’s 100 foot column, around which is depicted the humiliating defeat of the Dacians, may be interpreted as the domination of the then most formidable opponents of the Roman Empire.  It is also worth noting that the ‘rape’ of these people by Trajan’s forces paid for the construction of Trajan’s Forum and his giant column.  What better expression of artistic propaganda could there have been to commemorate the defeat of the Dacians – who paid for the very piece of art that boastfully recorded their humiliation by Trajan?

The height of the column also served as propaganda, for it was the tallest structure in Rome, with building standards restricting the height of residential buildings to around 24 meters under Nero, which Trajan later lowered to 20 meters.[18]  So the column, atop of which stood the deified Emperor Trajan, could be seen towering above the city, forcing the audience to look upward towards the heavens to glimpse the deified emperor.

  Another structural feature of the column that probably served as propaganda was the spiralling design of the narrative bands [See Figure VI].  Trajan’s Column was erected to eulogize Trajan,[19] and in order to follow the narrative on the column, the audience would have had to have circumambulated the column, which becomes significant when an understanding of ancient Roman funerary rites is gained. It is also noteworthy that Trajan’s ashes were placed within the base of his column [See Figure VII].[20]  Circumambulation was an important Roman funerary rite, in which the mourners would walk around the funeral pyre.[21] On this practice, Davies says:

‘Plutarch reports Varro’s statement that when the living visited ancestral tombs they would “turn around” the graves, as they did the shrines of the gods.  Moreover, at a funeral, the participants would circumambulate the pyre; Statius describes how seven squadrons of knights encircled the pyre of Opheltes to the left, and several sources indicate that this ceremony was enacted with extravagant display at imperial funerals’.[22]

fig 6

Figure VI: Spiralling Narrative Bands [23] 

fig 7

   Figure VII: Base of Trajan’s Column  [24]

When people came to visit Trajan’s Forum they would have more than likely been frequently treated to the spectacle of people appearing to mourn Trajan by walking around his column in what would have looked to have been a funerary ritual.  Davies comments on this propaganda tactic, saying:

‘…the frieze encouraged the visitor to circumambulate the sacred burial spot, in order to commit the deceased to his resting place, and to re-enact and perpetuate rituals performed at the emperor’s burial. Aptly, this respectful action took place before the Temple of the Divine Trajan, seat of the deceased emperor’s cult.95 Given the Column’s prominent location in one of Rome’s most frequented areas, visitors would be constant, drawn from a wide cross-section of Roman society…’[25]

fig8

Figure VIII: Audience Gathered around Trajan’s Column [26]

 

The design of the narrative bands also may have served as subtle propaganda. The approximately 2,600 figures [27] are represented both horizontally and from a birds-eye perspective [See Figure IX], adding an element of chaos and vibrancy to the pictorial narrative.  Amidst this chaos is the emperor, who is always shown from a horizontal perspective, calm, in control, and frequently with an attentive audience in his presence [See Figure X].

fig 9

Figure IX: Testudo – Horizontal & Birds-Eye Perspective [28]   

 

fig 10

                                          Figure X: Audience Listening to Trajan [29]

 

Religion and Propaganda

The frieze on Trajan’s Column not only shows the god Jupiter hurling lightning bolts down on Rome’s enemies [See Figure XI] but also, it depicts Trajan offering sacrifices to the gods [See Figure XII]. This pictorial display was almost certainly propaganda. Religion has been since its inception a powerful tool for political propaganda.[30] Alexander the Great was cognisant of this fact, which is why he always appeared as the pious offeror of sacrifices to the gods,[31] and it is why he eventually propagated his own deification.[32]  Alexander’s teacher, Aristotle, was also aware of the persuasive nature of religion as a tool for political propaganda. In his renowned book Politics he wrote:

‘Also he [the tyrant] should appear to be particularly earnest in the service of the Gods; for if men think that a ruler is religious and has a reverence for the Gods, they are less afraid of suffering injustice at his hands, and they are less disposed to conspire against him, because they believe him to have the very Gods fighting on his side.’[33]

 

fig 11

                                        Figure XI: Jupiter’s Lightning Bolts [34]

fig 12

Figure XII: Trajan Presiding over Sacrifice [35]

The frieze on Trajan’s Column was the artistic representation of Aristotle’s philosophy regarding the employment of religion for the benefit of the ruler. Trajan was shown as displaying great reverence towards the gods, with scenes depicting him offering sacrifices – and also, his column showed the fruits of such reverence in the form of Jupiter fighting on his side, hurling lightning bolts down on his enemies, the Dacians [See Figure XI].

 

Possible Misleading Nature of the Pictorial Narrative

  Propaganda need not necessarily be misleading but it is a frequent component of propaganda that a certain level of distortion serve the ends of the propagators.  It’s possible that the narrative bands on the column contain a subtle yet useful distortion with regards to the attire of Trajan’s army [See Figure XIII].  Gilliver notes: ‘However, it is clear that the uniform image of the imperial legionary wearing segmented armor that we are familiar with from Trajan’s Column is an ideal; sculptures from tombstones and provincial monuments such as Adamklissi depict legionaries with a range of different armor and weapons, and in some legions some of the soldiers were equipped differently from others’.[36]

 

fig 13
  Figure XIII: Trajan’s Uniformed Army [37]

 

The purpose for the propagation of this uniformed and organized ideal probably served to make the Dacians, who were barbarians, appear less organized, comparatively unsophisticated and ultimately unequal to Trajan’s disciplined and uniformed forces. On this point, Griffin remarks:

‘Although the military emphasis on Trajan’s Column and the Adamklissi monument is different, both show the enemy as unequal to Rome in organization and discipline, and paying for defiance by total subjection, decapitated in battle and bound in chains’.[38]

Further, Gilliver states: ‘The uniformed, homogenous fighting force illustrated on monuments such as Trajan’s Column is a product of imperial propaganda and this image has been encouraged by modern misconceptions that a professional standing army such as Rome had must have been similar to later professional armies’.[39]

Emperor Trajan is in control, his forces are supremely outfitted and organized, and rebellion against this supreme imperial army results in subjection, decapitation and, as was the case with the Dacians, complete and utter annihilation.[40] This is what the column appears to be artistically expressing in this regard.  This particular victory of Trajan’s was emphasised not only by the immensity of the column and the outlandish amount of artistry that went into its production, but also its artistic propagation of the idea that the Dacians were a formidable opponent. The base of the Column shows the strength of the Dacians by exhibiting their weaponry [See Figure XIV], which makes for a dramatic foundation to the narrative bands showing Trajan’s struggle and victory against these worthy yet ultimately inferior opponents.

fig 14

Figure XIV: Base of Trajan’s Column Depiction Dacian Weaponry [41]

 

The Function of the Pictorial Narrative Bands of the Column

Given the high rates of illiteracy in the beginning of the second century CE in Rome, Trajan’s Column would have been a form of media that could be interpreted by the widest possible audience. Two libraries flanked the column,[42] however, the pictorial narrative, with its propaganda-themed features and narrative functions discussed above would have been accessible to the majority of the citizens of Rome who could not read. Winsbury notes: ‘If the above figures for full literacy are even roughly correct, it means that for the large majority of the population that was semi-literate or illiterate, oral communications must have been the norm, indeed the only option’.[43]  Thus, to supplement the oral traditions surrounding Trajan’s legendary defeat of the Dacians there was now a dramatic, artistic visual aid, erected to attest to Trajan’s glorious reign and his powerful victory over the barbarians of Dacia.

 

Conclusion

  Trajan’s column was an artistic piece of imperial propaganda.  It presented a biased, if not misleading, depiction of Trajan’s war with the Dacians.  Located in the centre of Rome, where a large and constant audience would naturally gravitate toward it due to its height and the immensity of its construction, it presented itself as a phallic symbol of the emperor’s supreme glory.  The spiralling narrative bands forced this large and constant audience to re-enact the ancient Roman funerary rite of circumambulation, which would have certainly given the impression that crowds were in constant mourning over the loss of the deified emperor. The artistry on the frieze served as an easy-to-read narrative which told the chaotic and dramatic tale Trajan’s noteworthy victory over one of Rome’s most formidable enemies, all the while showing Trajan to be calm, collected, in control and frequently with a keen, attentive audience.

Perhaps the most persuasive and influential aspect of this artistic piece of imperial propaganda was the religious iconography that appeared throughout the frieze.  As Aristotle had written centuries before: ‘The [ruler] should appear to be particularly earnest in the service of the Gods; for if men think that a ruler is religious and has a reverence for the Gods, they are less afraid of suffering injustice at his hands, and they are less disposed to conspire against him, because they believe him to have the very Gods fighting on his side’.  The frieze on Trajan’s column hits all of these notes, not only showing Trajan’s reverence for the gods of Rome, but also expressly depicting the god Jupiter on his side.

In glorifying Trajan, Trajan’s Column glorified Rome, and it did so with the lording of a possibly misleading depiction of a uniformed battalion. Further, it contained various warnings to those who may wish to rebel against this supremely organized, ordered and disciplined empire, showing the decapitated heads of Dacian warriors.  The purpose of Trajan’s Column was not only to eulogize an emperor who managed to defeat and crush enemies of Rome who his predecessors were incapable of fully destroying, but to propagate the notion that supernatural deities were fighting on the side of Rome, which, given the prevalence of superstition at the time, would have been a powerful deterrent to anyone who might have wanted to rebel against the Roman Empire.

 

  

Notes

  1. Figure I: Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.romanianstudies.org/content/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Rome-Trajans-Column.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  2. Oxford Dictionaries, Propaganda, cited at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/propaganda, accessed on 20th 2016.
  3. Philip M. Taylor, Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, 3rd Ed., Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003, pp. 20-22.
  4. George Orwell, All Art is Propaganda: Critical Essays, Compiled by George Packer, Boston: Mariner Books, 2009, p. 198.
  5. Martin Henig, A Handbook of Roman Art: A Comprehensive Survey of the All the Arts of the Roman World, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983, p. 9.
  6. Michael Schmitz, Enemies of Rome, Monograph Series, Vol. 1: The Dacian Threat 101-106 A.D., Armidale: Caeros Pty Ltd., 2005, pp. 10-11; Martin Goodman, The Roman World 44 BC – AD 180, London: Routledge, 1997, pp. 226-227.
  7. Miriam Griffin, Nerva to Hadrian, cited in: Alan K. Bowman (ed.), Peter Garnsey (ed.), DominiRathbone (ed.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. XI: The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, 2nd, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 101.
  8. Oliver Heckster, The Roman Army and Propaganda, cited in: Paul Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, pp. 343-344.
  9. Figure II: Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/trajan-column/img/article/img1_2048.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  10. Figure III: Emperor Trajan, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.crystalinks.com/TrajansColumn3.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  11. Noam Chomsky & Carlos Peregrin Otero, Chomsky on Democracy and Education, New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003, p. 227.
  12. Maurice Waite (ed.), Pocket Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 725.
  13. Online Etymology Dictionary, Propaganda, cited at: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=propaganda, accessed 30th 2016.
  14. Jas Elsner, Art and Text in Roman Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 13.
  15. Figure IV: St. Peter atop Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/09/ab/0d/02/trajan-s-column.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  16. Amy Richlin, Sexuality in the Roman Empire, cited in: David S. Potter (ed.), A Companion to the Roman Empire, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, p. 353.
  17. Figure V: Trajan’s Phallic Column, cited at: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/2a/c9/85/2ac98587f7c0847e100776ee50365bee.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  18. Charles Gates, Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome, 2nd Ed., Abingdon: Routledge, 2011, p. 369.
  19. Roger David Von Dippe, The Origin and Development of Continuous Narrative in Roman Art, 300 B.C. – A.D. 200, Los Angeles: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 2007, p. 435.
  20. Charles Gates, Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome, 2nd Ed., Abingdon: Routledge, 2011, pp. 383-385.
  21. Robert Turcan, The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times, New York: Routledge, 2001, p. 41; Laura Salah Nasrallah, Christian Responses to Roman Art and Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 125.
  22. Penelope J.E. Davies, Death and the Emperor: Roman Imperial Funerary Monuments From Augustus to Marcus Aurelius, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004, p. 125.
  23. Figure VI: Spiralling Narrative Bands of Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1-28-se_2098-web.jpg, accessed on 30th
  24. Figure VII: Base of Trajan’s Column, cited at: https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3043/2367189452_4952259a4f.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  25. Penelope J. E. Davies. 1997. “The Politics of Perpetuation: Trajan’s Column and the Art of Commemoration”.American Journal of Archaeology 101 (1). Archaeological Institute of America: 41–65. doi:10.2307/506249.
  26. Figure VIII: Audience Gathered around Trajan, Trajan’s Column, cited at: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/32/43/2c/32432c053f851d24ebaebf26eb4a0ccb.jpg, cited on 30th 2016.
  27. Elise A. Friedland (ed.), Melanie Grunow Sobocinski (ed.), Elaine K. Gazda (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Sculpture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 113.
  28. Figure IX: Testudo – Horizontal & Birds-Eye Perspective, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.bueker-gmbh.de/pics/u/schildkroete.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  29. Figure X: Audience Listening to Trajan, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/uploads/27_3771-web.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  30. Joaquim Carvalho (ed.), Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence, Pisa: Pisa University Press, 2007, p. 167; Stephanie Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and Others, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, p. 232; Kathryn A. Bard, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, London: Routledge, 1999, p. 557.
  31. Arrian, The Anabasis of Arrian, (trans. E.J. Chinnock), London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1884, pp. 314-315; Ian Worthington, Alexander the Great – A Reader, London: Routledge, 2003, p. 337.
  32. Ernst Badian, Collected Papers on Alexander the Great, London: Routledge, 2012, p. 267; Claudius Aelianus, Various Histories, (trans. Thomas Stanley), London: Printed for Thomas Basset, 1670, Book II, Chapter 19, pp. 42-43.
  33. Aristotle, Politics, (trans. Benjamin Jowett), Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books, 1999, p. 136.
  34. Figure XI: Jupiter’s Lightning Bolts, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.romainteractive.com/immagini/colonna_traiana/14.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  35. Figure XII: Trajan Presiding over Sacrifice, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_x_viii_6923_ppt.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  36. Kate Gilliver, The Augustan Reform and the Structure of the Imperial Army, cited in: Paul Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, p. 192.
  37. Figure XIII: Trajan’s Uniformed Army, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://militaryhistorynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/frieze_on_trajan__s_column_by_parallel_pam-d4rl39v.jpg, accessed on 30th 2016.
  38. Miriam Griffin, Nerva to Hadrian, cited in: Alan K. Bowman (ed.), Peter Garnsey (ed.), Dominic Rathbone (ed.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. XI: The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, 2nd, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p.113.
  39. Kate Gilliver, The Augustan Reform and the Structure of the Imperial Army, cited in: Paul Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, p. 184.
  40. Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Budapest: Central European University Press, 1997, p. 123.
  41. Figure XIV: Base of Trajan’s Column Depicting Dacian Weaponry, cited at: http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/ARTH/Images/109images/Roman/imperial_sculpture/column_trajan/column_base.jpg, accessed on 31st 2016.
  42. Matthew Bunson, Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, Rev. Ed., New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2002, p. 219.
  43. Rex Winsbury, The Roman Book: Books, Publishing and Performance in Classical Rome, London: Bloomsbury, 2009, p. 115.

 

Bibliography

List of Figures

Figure I: Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.romanianstudies.org/content/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Rome-Trajans-Column.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

Figure II: Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/trajan-column/img/article/img1_2048.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure III: Emperor Trajan, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.crystalinks.com/TrajansColumn3.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure IV: St. Peter atop Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/09/ab/0d/02/trajan-s-column.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure V: Trajan’s Phallic Column, cited at: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/2a/c9/85/2ac98587f7c0847e100776ee50365bee.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure VI: Spiralling Narrative Bands of Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1-28-se_2098-web.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan.

 

Figure VII: Base of Trajan’s Column, cited at: https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3043/2367189452_4952259a4f.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure VIII: Audience Gathered around Trajan, Trajan’s Column, cited at: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/32/43/2c/32432c053f851d24ebaebf26eb4a0ccb.jpg, cited on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure IX: Testudo – Horizontal & Birds-Eye Perspective, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.bueker-gmbh.de/pics/u/schildkroete.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure X: Audience Listening to Trajan, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/uploads/27_3771-web.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure XI: Jupiter’s Lightning Bolts, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.romainteractive.com/immagini/colonna_traiana/14.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure XII: Trajan Presiding over Sacrifice, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_x_viii_6923_ppt.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure XIII: Trajan’s Uniformed Army, Trajan’s Column, cited at: http://militaryhistorynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/frieze_on_trajan__s_column_by_parallel_pam-d4rl39v.jpg, accessed on 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Figure XIV: Base of Trajan’s Column Depicting Dacian Weaponry, cited at: http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/ARTH/Images/109images/Roman/imperial_sculpture/column_trajan/column_base.jpg, accessed on 31st Jan. 2016.

 

 

 

Ancient Sources

 

Aelianus, Claudius, Various Histories, (trans. Thomas Stanley), London: Printed for Thomas Basset, 1670.

 

Aristotle, Politics, (trans. Benjamin Jowett), Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books, 1999.

 

Arrian, The Anabasis of Arrian, (trans. E.J. Chinnock), London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1884.

 

Secondary Sources

Badian, Ernst, Collected Papers on Alexander the Great, London: Routledge, 2012.

 

Bard, Kathryn A., Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, London: Routledge, 1999.

 

Boia, Lucian, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Budapest: Central European University Press, 1997.

 

Bunson, Matthew, Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, Rev. Ed., New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2002.

 

Carvalho, Joaquim, (ed.), Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence, Pisa: Pisa University Press, 2007.

 

Chomsky, Noam, & Otero, Carlos Peregrin, Chomsky on Democracy and Education, New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.

 

Dalley, Stephanie, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and Others, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

 

Davies, Penelope J.E., Death and the Emperor: Roman Imperial Funerary Monuments From Augustus to Marcus Aurelius, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.

 

Davies, Penelope J.E. 1997. “The Politics of Perpetuation: Trajan’s Column and the Art of Commemoration”. American Journal of Archaeology 101 (1). Archaeological Institute of America: 41–65. doi:10.2307/506249.

 

Elsner, Jas, Art and Text in Roman Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 

Friedland, Elise A. (ed.), Sobocinski, Melanie Grunow (ed.), Gazda, Elaine K. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Sculpture, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Gates, Charles, Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome, 2nd Ed., Abingdon: Routledge, 2011.

 

Gilliver, Kate, The Augustan Reform and the Structure of the Imperial Army, cited in: Erdkamp, Paul, A Companion to the Roman Army, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.

 

Goodman, Martin, The Roman World 44 BC – AD 180, London: Routledge, 1997.

 

Griffin, Miriam, Nerva to Hadrian, cited in: Alan K. Bowman (ed.), Peter Garnsey (ed.), DominiRathbone (ed.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. XI: The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, 2nd Ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

 

Heckster, Oliver, The Roman Army and Propaganda, cited in: Paul Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.

 

Henig, Martin, A Handbook of Roman Art: A Comprehensive Survey of the All the Arts of the Roman World, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

 

Nasrallah, Laura Salah, Christian Responses to Roman Art and Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

 

Online Etymology Dictionary, Propaganda, cited at: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=propaganda, accessed 30th Jan. 2016.

 

Orwell, George, All Art is Propaganda: Critical Essays, Compiled by George Packer, Boston: Mariner Books, 2009.

 

Oxford Dictionaries, Propaganda, cited at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/propaganda, accessed on 20th Jan. 2016.

 

Richlin, Amy, Sexuality in the Roman Empire, cited in: David S. Potter (ed.), A Companion to the Roman Empire, Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

 

Schmitz, Michael, Enemies of Rome, Monograph Series, Vol. 1: The Dacian Threat 101-106 A.D., Armidale: Caeros Pty Ltd., 2005.

 

Taylor, Philip M., Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, 3rd Ed., Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003.

 

Turcan, Robert, The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times, New York: Routledge, 2001.

 

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